Preventivo de Câncer de Colo Uterino

Fatores de Risco
Vários são os fatores de risco identificados para o câncer do colo do útero, sendo que alguns dos principais estão associados às baixas condições sócio-econômicas, ao início precoce da atividade sexual, à multiplicidade de parceiros sexuais, ao tabagismo (diretamente relacionados à quantidade de cigarros fumados), à higiene íntima inadequada e ao uso prolongado de contraceptivos orais. Estudos recentes mostram ainda que o vírus do papiloma humano (HPV) tem papel importante no desenvolvimento da neoplasia das células cervicais e na sua transformação em células cancerosas. Este vírus está presente em mais de 90% dos casos de câncer do colo do útero.

Estudo comparando estratégias para a detecção precoce do câncer do colo do útero e suas lesões precursoras

Estratégias de Prevenção
A prevenção primária do câncer do colo do útero pode ser realizada através do uso de preservativos durante a relação sexual. A prática do sexo seguro é uma das formas de evitar o contágio pelo HPV, vírus que tem um papel importante no desenvolvimento de lesões precursoras e do câncer.

A principal estratégia utilizada para detecção precoce da lesão precursora e diagnóstico precoce do câncer (prevenção secundária) no Brasil é através da realização do exame preventivo do câncer do colo do útero (conhecido popularmente como exame de Papanicolaou). O exame pode ser realizado nos postos ou unidades de saúde que tenham profissionais da saúde capacitados para realizá-los.

E fundamental que os serviços de saúde orientem sobre o que é e qual a importância do exame preventivo, pois a sua realização periódica permite reduzir a mortalidade por câncer do colo do útero na população de risco. O INCA tem realizado diversas campanhas educativas, voltadas para a população e para os profissionais da saúde, para incentivar o exame preventivo.

O exame preventivo
O exame preventivo do câncer do colo do útero (exame de Papanicolaou) consiste na coleta de material citológico do colo do útero, sendo coletada uma amostra da parte externa (ectocérvice) e outra da parte interna (endocérvice).

Para a coleta do material, é introduzido um espéculo vaginal e procede-se à escamação ou esfoliação da superfície externa e interna do colo através de uma espátula de madeira e de uma escovinha endocervical.

Mulheres grávidas também podem realizar o exame. Neste caso, são coletadas amostras do fundo-de-saco vaginal posterior e da ectocérvice, mas não da endocérvice, para não estimular contrações uterinas.

A fim de garantir a eficácia dos resultados, a mulher deve evitar relações sexuais, uso de duchas ou medicamentos vaginais e anticoncepcionais locais nas 48 horas anteriores ao exame. Além disto, exame não deve ser feito no período menstrual, pois a presença de sangue pode alterar o resultado.

Quem e quando fazer o exame preventivo
Toda mulher que tem ou já teve atividade sexual deve submeter-se a exame preventivo periódico, especialmente se estiver na faixa etária dos 25 aos 59 anos de idade.

Inicialmente, um exame deve ser feito a cada ano e, caso dois exames seguidos (em um intervalo de 1 ano) apresentarem resultado normal, o exame pode passar a ser feito a cada três anos.

Vacinação
Recentemente foi liberada uma vacina para o HPV. No momento está em estudo no Ministério da Saúde o uso pelo SUS. �? importante enfatizar que esta vacina não protege contra todos os subtipos do HPV. Sendo assim, o exame preventivo deve continuar a ser feito mesmo em mulheres vacinadas. Saiba mais sobre HPV.

Sintomas
Existe uma fase pré-clínica (sem sintomas) do câncer do colo do útero, em que a detecção de possíveis lesões precursoras é através da realização periódica do exame preventivo. Conforme a doença progride, os principais sintomas do câncer do colo do útero são sangramento vaginal, corrimento e dor.

Tratamento
O tratamento adequado para cada caso deve ser avaliado e orientado por um médico.

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